Launched “United States of India” (unitedstatesofindia.com). It is a unique portal because it not only provides “Information on anything i.e. Indian” but is launched with a specific objective that is to portray only the positive aspects of India...
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Pragatya Din of Param Pujya Prabhudasbhai (Pragat Guruhari P. P. Hariprasad Swamiji)...
Bharat (India) the divine land sanctified by the foot-prints of the God and his incarnation, the aspirants seeking ultimate liberator, the siddhas, the sages- ascetics and the sadhus practicing penance and adorning it still more is its western region which is called Gujarat where all the five incarnations of Bharat stepped in, made it their field of action and transformed it into a holy place of pilgrimage.
'Aasoj' is a very very small village in the tehsil of Savli, located in a corner of the Vaakal region in the Vadodara district of this holy Gujarat. In this village there lived Gopaldas and Kashiba leading a deeply religious and devout life as it they were the very embodiments of Dharma and Bhakti. In the auspicious morning of Vaishakh Sud 10 V.S. 1990 and Thursday, dated 23-5-1934 a divine male child was born to them. And with the manifestation of this child, the blessing that Brahm Swaroop Shastriji Maharaj has bestowed on this village a few years back - "I will return here with a divine soul who will sanctify this village into a holy place of pilgrimage!" was relived today. As at the time of the child's birth, the sign of zodiac was Virgo, He was named "Prabhudas" so that, wherever called by that name. He would remind the caller of the name of God!
As the family followed the Vaishnava tradition, it was from the beginning, engrossed in the devotion of God and in the service of the saints, and therefore, their house was frequently visited by saints, Maha-mandaleshwars and the Shhankaracharyas of the three monasteries. Thus, ever since His childhood, Prabhudasbhai could attain the affection of and the knowledge from the saints and the Maha-mandaleshwars. He served them with all this heart and got the utmost advantage of them. On many an occasion, He displayed his fascination personality and extraordinary wisdom!
Prabhudas had His primary education in Aasoj itself, there after he went to live with his sister's husband in Anand where he had his secondary education up to Matriculation at Sharda-Mandir School. He then had his college education up to lnter-Science at N.V. Science College, Vallabh-Vidyanagar.
Along with the studies in school and college, Prabhudas used to visit the Hanumanji temple, Lambhvel every evening to perform the Pradakshina. He had so far studied the Bhagwad Geeta by 24 different authors among which four were the English versions! He also went on a pilgrimage to shri Nathji on foot!
In 1953 A.D. Prabhudas came in union with Yogiji Maharaj for the first time in Revandas's Khadaki at the house of Manilal- His sister's husband. It was as though a river had submerged into an ocean!
Prior to this, when He was 14 Years old, the Maha-mandaleshwar of Karnali Ashram had bestowed a divine blessing on Him, "You will come in association with a saint who is Sthitpragna (calm and poised either in joy or in sadness, either in victory or in defeat, either in Profit or in Loss, and what not), who himself is desire less and will make you so, who is free from anger himself and will make you so."
Bramaswaroop Yogiji Maharaj, the reader of each one's mind, caressed Prabhudas's neck affectionately, gave Him a pat on His back, drew His face close to His and whispered in His ears, "Please, forgive us for the mistakes committed by the Swaminarayan saints so far, Lord Swaminarayan has sent us here on to this earth to realize the blessings that your guru bestowed on you five Years back!"
Although Prabhudas had imbibed the Sanskaras of the Vaishnav culture and had cultivated a strong dislike for the Swaminarayan sect, He was so deeply touched by the culmination of the selfless love, compassion without expectation, and egoless-ness of Yogiji Maharaj that His heart was lowered at his lotus feet in total submission, and from that very moment His satsang in the Swaminarayan Sect began and from that very moment too, to live by the injunctions of Yogiji Maharaj become Prabhudas's inherent life.
In 1955 A.D. He was officially initiated by Yogiji Maharaj into the sect. From that time on, Prabhudas used to stay with Bapa during vacation and during festivals, and performed various services like cleaning utensils, sweeping the temple premises, serving meals to devotees, Looking after the facilities of the guests during festivals and shibirs (spiritual seminars), massaging Bapa's back, giving discourses to the youths etc. and thus He looked after eighteen different department of the temple.
From 1961 to 1965, Prabhudas served Yogiji Maharaj as his Personal Secretary, during these years, giving replies to the devotees' letters as per Bapa's suggestions, arranging the programs of Yogiji Maharaj and making accommodation for him, making devotees firmly believe how divine and Supreme soul Yogiji Maharaj is, and many more like these were the duties performed by Prabhudas.
Prabhudas always acted upon Yogiji Maharaj's inclination and served him as sincerely and devoutly as Yogiji Maharaj had served Brahmaswaroop Shastrji Maharaj. Bapa was so pleased with Prabhudas's service with absolute devotion that the-following blessings were spontaneously bestowed by him on Prabhudas at different occasion....
- You will become passionless, and thousands will be made so by you.
- Seva (Devotional service) will be rendered to others by you, regarding them as innocent and faultless.
- You have served us as we served Shastriji Maharaj.
- From today the Knowledge of Brahm-Gyann will spring out from your mind and that spring will keep flowing incessantly.
- All the youths that come in association with you will be made to attain the ultimate liberation by Shastriji Maharaj.
- Whatever volition you make will pervade throughout the whole universe.
- The universal religion will be prevalent through you.
- You will shelter and protect thousands Sadhus.
Yogibapa had made volition to initiate Prabhudas into sainthood at Lakshmi wadi, Manavadar. He fulfill of his volition on the pious day of Vijaya Dashami, in 1965 A.D. by initiating Him as Parshad (the renouncer in white n' white) at the Aksharderi in Gondal, and on the most pious day of the Sharad Poornima, the day of the manifestation of Mul Akshar Murti Gunatitanandswami, Bapa initiated Prabhudas Bhagat into sainthood, Named Him "Sadhu Hariprasaddas," garlanded Him with the garland consecrated by him, and bestowing a divine blessing on Him that He was going to begin and epoch-making mission, Bapa said....
"Listen, all of you! Gunatitanand swami, the incarnation of Mul Akshar Brahma... Lived a worldly life for 25 Years. Than Maharaj Performed a grand yagya, invited thousands of the Brahmins to Dinner and initiated him into sainthood at Dabhan. In the same way, we have also held this festival initiated Prabhudas into sainthood. and the divine musical tunes played by the musical band. As Shastriji Maharaj initiated Pramukhswami who undertook the responsibility of the whole satsang, we expect Prabhudas to become Like Pramukhswami and shoulder the responsibility of the whole satsang, and initiate 51 new youths into sainthood
Our Mahant Swami the son of Manibhai from Anand, was initiated as a saint and he initiated many into sainthood, and is taking utmost come of them, Similarly, Prabhudasbhai, who has new become a saint, will make thousands of youths ekantik. It is a divine blessing from our deri that He will be happy within and make others happy, Many led by Him will attain the Askhardham... that is another divine blessing from our heart...."
IRBM 'Agni' Missile launched successfully from Chandipur, Orissa...
India is improving and updating her Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) ‘Agni’ which is still under development. It was first successfully test-fired on May 22, 1989, from India’s Missile testing range at Chandipur-on-Sea on the Orissa coast in Eastern India. The two earlier attempts having failed, the third attempt which proved successful was able to launch the missile to a distance of 625 miles. Later on two more tests were carried out. It is designed to carry a one-ton payload 2500 kms (1,500 miles), far enough to hit cities in Southern China. Carrying a half-ton atomic bomb, the ‘Agni’ would be able to fly about 2,200 miles, far enough to hit Beijing, the capital of China.
By test-firing the ‘Agni’ India became the first country to wrongfully divert the plans, knowledge and material obtained from friendly countries for a civilian space research programme towards building and operating a strategic military missile. The missile’s first-stage rocket motor, heat shield and guidance system all came from India’s space research programme which had been generously launched and sustained over the years by foreign help from countries who believed in India’s word and solemn commitments to employ the technology for peaceful research of outer space.
After the ‘Agni’ tests the late Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minister of India at the time had said that Agni (fire) is an R&D (Research and Development) vehicle, not a weapon system. He went on to say Agni is not a nuclear weapons system. What Agni does is to afford us the option of developing the ability to deliver non-nuclear weapons with high precision at long ranges. It is the opinion of defence experts the world over that for a country to invest millions of dollars in developing a medium range surface-to-surface ballistic missile to send conventional high explosives at targets 2500 kms away does not make any military sense. Ballistic missiles of such large dimensions have to be nuclear armed to produce the devastating effect it is designed to. It can only then act as a useful deterrent. In India’s case it will project her power much beyond her frontiers to the Indian Ocean and its littoral states, also to the Middle East and Central Asia.
Whether ‘Agni’ eventually carries nuclear or conventional weapons, though it is evident that it will carry the former, the fact remains that it is a missile developed for military purposes from knowledge and components pledged for civilian research of outer space. The missile ‘Agni’ has also shattered the illusions that sharing advanced technology in the interest of peaceful uses of outer space would benefit humanity. This turned out to be a fallacy. It is now evident that democratic India was prepared to cheat and go back on its solemn assurances given to the Western world when it suited her purpose to do so. She will continue to violate international norms and blackmail and coerce her small neighbours, to be in a position to dominate her region and beyond. It is doubtful if she will succeed, as her friends in the West have started to see India as she actually is - a poor and deceitful nation which is turning into a local bully.
The story of India’s ‘Agni’ missile development shows how difficult it is to separate civilian and military uses of technology and how futile it may be to control the spread of military missile technology. A missile control regime was established by seven Western nations in 1987 which seeks to prevent the spread of missile development, but does not seem to be having much success. As the missile control regime had no provisions for enforcement, so the Indian missile development programme continued apace with considerable foreign help, particularly from the former West Germany after the missile control regime was adopted.
Professor Gary Milhollin writing in ‘The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists’ in November 1989 said Agni’s’ foreign ancestry dates from the 1960s. In November 1963, the United States began India’s space programme by launching a U.S. sounding rocket from Indian soil (Sounding rockets fly straight up into the atmosphere to conduct scientific experiments. They are too small to launch satellites). The United States was followed by others. Between 1963 and 1975, more than 350 U.S., Soviet and British sounding rockets were launched from India’s Thumba Range, which the United States helped design. Thumba’s first group of Indian engineers had learned rocket launching and range operation in the United States.
Among the first batch of engineers to learn rocket launching and range operation in the United States was ‘Agni’s chief designer, A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. In 1963-64, he had spent four months in training in the United States. He visited NASA’s Langley Research Centre in Virginia, where the U.S. ‘Scout’ rocket was conceived, and he also visited the Wallops Island Flight Centre on the Virginia Coast, where the ‘Scout’ was being flown. The ‘Scout’ was a low-cost and reliable satellite launcher that NASA had developed for orbiting small payloads.
Immediately after this, in 1965 the Indian government asked NASA how much it would cost and how long it would take to develop an Indian version of the U.S. ‘Scout’ rocket and whether the United States would help. NASA replied that the ‘Scout’ was available .... for purchase .... in connection with scientific research, but also added that the transfer of this technology .... would be a matter for determination by the Department of State under Munitions Control. NASA however sent to India technical reports on the ‘Scout’ design, which was unclassified. India’s request should have raised some eyebrows and caste some doubts on its innocent and simple procedure as the request had come from Homi Bhabha himself. He was head of the Indian atomic Energy Commission. But no doubts were raised and the request was treated as normal.
A.P.J. Abdul Kalam had by now acquired all the information he needed. He returned to India and built the SLV-3 (Space Launch Vehicle), India’s first satellite launcher. Its design is virtually identical to the U.S. ‘Scout’ rocket. Both Indian and U.S. rockets are 23 meters long. Use four similar solid-fuel stages and Open-loop guidance and lift a 40-kilogram payload into low earth orbit. The SLV’s 30-foot first stage was later to be used as the first stage of the ‘Agni’ missile.
NASA officials maintained that U.S. aid to India in rocketry was limited to the programme in the 1960s. However in 1988, the United States agreed to supply an advanced ring laser gyroscope to help guide a new Indian fighter plane. But there was nothing to prevent India from using it to guide military missilesÑwhich she is reported to have done. The laser gyroscope is a highly accurate device, essentially solid state, making it easy to adept the demands of missile acceleration.
France also launched sounding rockets from India, and in the late 1960s allowed India to begin building Centaur sounding rockets under license from Sud Aviation. But it seems that France’s main contribution to the development of India’s short and intermediate range missiles has been in the field of liquid propulsion. Under a license from France’s Societe Europeen de Propulsion (SEP), India built its own version of the ‘Viking’, high-thrust liquid rocket motor, which had been used on the European Space Agency’s Ariane satellite launcher. Indian engineer who had helped in developing the ‘Viking’ during the mid ‘70s later began a rocket development programme for India on their return home. It has been named the ‘Vikas’.
The training that the Indians received in liquid propulsion paid off handsomely later on. A year before testing the ‘Agni’, A.P.J. Abdul Kalam of India tested its smaller predecessor, the ‘Prithvi’ (earth) which uses a liquid - propelled motor to carry a one-ton payload to a distance of 150 miles. It resembles the widely used Russian ‘Scud-B’ short range surface-to-surface ballistic missile. Indian sources admit that the ‘Agni’s’ second stage is a shortened version of the ‘Prithvi’.
The assistance provided by the United States and France towards the development of Indian missile technology was however quickly dwarfed by German help in the 1970s and 1980s. Germany gave India help in three indispensable missile technologies. These were in the guidance, rocket testing and the use of composite materials. All these were supposed to be for civilian use of the space research programme of India. But all these were equally useful in the development of military missile and that is exactly where India had intended to use this knowledge. Upper space research was only a ploy used by India to hoodwink the West. The question is, was the West willing to be deceived to befriend India?
The German government’s aerospace agency DLR (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luftfahrt und Raumfahrt e. V.) began teaching Indians all about rocket guidance in 1976. The first step was to put a German interferometer on an Indian sounding rocket. An interferometer works by using antennas placed in different locations on the rocket to measure the phase of a radio signal received from the ground. The phase difference among the antennas reveals their relative position on the rocket and thus the rocket’s attitude which can be monitored and corrected from the ground. The first launch of an Indian rocket with a German interferometer was in 1978. By 1981 the German project had been expanded to include an on-board DLR microprocessor. In April 1982 India tested its own version of the same interferometer supplied by Germany initially.
The next step was to build a navigation system that did not depend on signals from the ground. It should by itself guide a payload through space by determining its position and speed at any moment. In July 1981 India proposed the autonomous navigation capability to spaceborne sensors thus determining position, velocity, attitude and precision time in a real-time mode. In other words India would supply the rockets and satellites, whereas Germany would provide the brains of the guidance system. The key component of which would be an on-board computer, using a microprocessor based on the German Motorola family M68000, and the required software to run it.
It should be noted that an inertial navigation system that can guide satellites can also guide military warheads. The United States had also used NASA’s experience in guiding the ‘Titan II’ transtage, a ‘bus’ designed, for multiple satellite launchings to develop a ‘bus’ that would accurately deliver small nuclear warheads.
The German-Indian joint plan was eventually carried out. By January 1982, the two countries had agreed on a series of joint project for their programmes. At the same time India announced that it was developing a new navigation system for its own rockets which would replace the ‘open loop’ system used on its first launched SLV-3 with a ‘closed loop’ system for its Advanced Space Launch Vehicle (ASLV) and its Polar Space Launch Vehicle (PSLV). So while the German - Indian plan called APC - Rex (Autonomous Payload Control Rocket Experiment) was developing, India would also be developing an autonomous navigation for its own rockets. The implication is obvious. India developed the ‘Mark-II’ on-board processor which was based on the Motorola M68000 microprocessor with 16-bit word length, same as that used in the German programme. The timing of subsequent events showed continued parallel development. The stealing of technology was obvious.
German assistance apparently continued despite the launching of the ‘Agni’ missile. In May 1989 a DLR official had said that the APC - Rex was to be concluded in 1989. West Germany was one of the seven countries that adopted the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) in 1987. It was an agreement not to export items useful in making long-range missiles. The agreement also barred the export of technology capable of real-time processing of navigation data, unless specific assurances could be given that the technology would not be used for, or transferred to missile programmes. If, as the evidence suggests, the technology from the German - Indian APC-Rex programme has been used in the development of Indian military rockets and missiles, Germany may have violated the MTCR or India gave a wrong specific assurances. The evidence is strong that India’s ‘Agni’ missile owes its brain to German engineering.
The Indian space programme first mentions the ‘Agni’ in its 1982-83 annual report as a booster rocket for its SLV. Six identical ‘Agni’ boosters were to lift the missile’s first stage. The boosters themselves are adaptations of the first stage of the SLV-3, which is the only large booster motor that India has. It carries nine tons of solid propellant, as does the ‘Agni’s’ first stage. No other Indian booster carries anything close to that amount. India has used the same booster to lift its ASLV. After the ‘Agni’ missile was launched a number of Indian and foreign sources had reported that the ‘Agni’s’ first stage rocket was identical to the SLV-3 first stage. It is therefore evident that the main rocket for India’s military missile programme came from India’s space programme which the Western democracies had so generously helped under the false belief that it was a civilian and peaceful research programme. ‘Agni’s’ main rocket owes much to German help. Wind tunnels are essential to the design of any rocket. In 1974-75, DLR tested a model of the first stage of India’s SLV-3 in its wind tunnel at Cologne-Portz. DLR also helped India to build rocket testing facilities, furnishing a complete design for the facility and training Indian engineers in high-altitude testing. India had said that it wanted to use this technology to test the liquid-fueled upper stage of its PSLV, but it could also be used to test the ‘Agni’s’ liquid-fueled second stage rocket which must have been done before its launch.
In June 1988, two Egyptian military officers were caught trying to smuggle out carbon fibre composites from the United States. Export of the composites was strictly controlled as these strong, lightweight, heat-resistant materials were being used for the nozzles and the nosecones of the United States Mx, Trident and Minuteman nuclear missiles. But the DLR in Germany started giving Indian scientists on-the-job training in composites at Stuttgart and Braunschweing in the mid-1970s. Subjects included glass fibre reinforced composites. The Indians learned composition, manufacturing processes, quality control and error detection.
The essential training provided by Germany helped India to make rocket nozzles and nosecones by themselves. These could be used for either missiles or space launchers. To help the Indians in using the composites, DLR supplied the necessary documents for a precision filament winding machine which India was able to build and commission in 1985-86.
After the ‘Agni’ test, the Prime Minister of India, the late Rajiv Gandhi said that one of the goals was to test atmospheric reentry. Other officers were more specific. They said the goal was to test a domestically developed head shield, the know-how for which had come from Germany.
It should be appreciated that no country including India, has ever spent large amounts on long- range rockets simply to explore space. The satellites launched by the Indian SLV-3 were little more than flight monitors, used to transmit data on rocket performance, which was India’s true interest. To launch real satellites, India could and did hire better facilities provided by other countries. The Soviets launched India’s first two satellites. France’s Ariance rocket and the U.S. space shuttle have launched other Indian satellites.
Neither has any country developed long-range ballistic missiles simply to deliver conventional bombs. The large cost of missile development is only justified when it has the ability to inflict a strategic blow and cause or threaten to cause unacceptable damage to life and property of the opponent.
India’s ‘Agni’ intermediate range ballistic missile, produced with considerable assistance from unsuspecting Western nations, can therefore only be interpreted as a large step forward towards a long-range and effective nuclear strike force in the making. As India makes progress in the guidance system, the range of ‘Agni’ will gradually increase to cover the whole of Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, most of Kazakhistan and Iran, the Persian Gulf, Bahrain, Qatar, UAE and Oman, portion of Saudi Arabia, most of China and half of Mangolia, touching a bit of Russian territory. In the Far East it will cover the whole of Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Burma and a bit of Malaysia and Indonesia. It covers a large portion of the Arabian Sea and extends well into the Indian Ocean. Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal are covered including a portion of the South China Sea. It is a formidable weapon which can only be used for extending India’s power and influence much beyond her frontiers into regions she is planning to coerce and dominate for political and economic reasons.
It is worth remembering that when India exploded an atomic bomb in 1974 and called it a peaceful nuclear explosion, the world was shocked. As India had taken a Canadian reactor and U.S. heavy water which had both been imported under guarantees of peaceful use, but used them openly in defiance of all international norms, to make plutonium for a nuclear test. That blast, that made India a nuclear state (not a threshold one) also destroyed the illusion about a peaceful atom and prompted changes in nuclear export policy by the Western nations.
It is however most surprising that given India’s record of deceit and deception in its international dealings and commitment, she was allowed to take full advantage of civilian imports and technology allowed by the developed Western nations and convert them surreptitiously into a full-fledged nuclear weapons programme.
Having helped India to become a ‘nuclear weapons state’ the question now is whether the Western nations would continue to help India in her ultimate aim of subjugating the whole of South Asia and the region around it and extending her power and influence to the Middle East in the North and the Indian Ocean in the South. If that happens the possibility of nuclear holocaust in South Asia will be difficult to avoid. The right policy would be to rein in India so that she can take her place in the comity of nations on the basis of sovereign equality of nations, particularly in Asia...
India declares a moratorium on nuclear testing...
INDIAN SCIENTISTS ON THE INDIAN NUCLEAR TESTS Sixty scientists from some of the top academic institutions in India and some universities elsewhere in the world have signed a letter in opposition to the recent nuclear tests...
India conducted five underground nuclear tests in Pokhran desert in Rajasthan. The tests were held just a month after the government had been in power. Two weeks later, Pakistan responded with its own nuclear tests making it the newest declared nation with nuclear weapons...
While some nations, such as Russia and France, endorsed India's right to defensive nuclear power, others including the United States, Canada, Japan, Britain and the European Union imposed sanctions on information, resources and technology to India. In spite of the intense international criticism and the steady decline in foreign investment and trade, the nuclear tests were popular domestically...
21 May 1998 India declares a moratorium on nuclear testing...
INDIAN SCIENTISTS ON THE INDIAN NUCLEAR TESTS Sixty scientists from some of the top academic institutions in India and some universities elsewhere in the world have signed a letter in opposition to the recent nuclear tests.
India conducted five underground nuclear tests in Pokhran desert in Rajasthan. The tests were held just a month after the government had been in power. Two weeks later, Pakistan responded with its own nuclear tests making it the newest declared nation with nuclear weapons.
While some nations, such as Russia and France, endorsed India's right to defensive nuclear power, others including the United States, Canada, Japan, Britain and the European Union imposed sanctions on information, resources and technology to India. In spite of the intense international criticism and the steady decline in foreign investment and trade, the nuclear tests were popular domestically.
The five Indian tests in May 1998 prompted archrival Pakistan to conduct tests of its own.
Santhanam said that the hydrogen bomb tested in 1998 "completely failed to ignite" and that the shaft, the frame and the winches were found to be intact even after the tests. No crater was formed in the fusion test.
"If the second H-bomb stage of the composite device had worked, the shaft would have been blown to smithereens," he told reporters.
India's national security adviser, M.K. Narayanan, dismissed the scientist's statements as "horrific" and said researchers have verified the nation's thermonuclear capabilities.
Nonetheless, Santhanam's revelation has struck at the heart of Indian pride over its nuclear weapons capability. The Indian news magazine Outlook called Santhanam a "whistle-blower" and a "myth bomber." A tabloid, Mail Today, said he had poured "a bucket of cold water on the security establishment." Others dubbed him unpatriotic for undermining India's credibility.
Critics of Santhanam say that testing now would endanger India's rising prominence in international affairs and would invite sanctions that could hurt India's economic growth.
"The cost is intolerable if India tests," said Kanwal Sibal, a former foreign secretary. "We will suffer international isolation. It will be a huge setback to our bid for permanent membership of the United Nations Security Council..."
Saint Kabir was born...
Sant Kabir is considered to be one of the greatest poets as well as mystics ever born in India. He believed that human beings are equal and being one with God is the ultimate aim of every individual. His love and devotion towards the Supreme One clearly reflects in his poetry. The Holy Guru Granth Sahib contains over 500 verses by the great saint, Kabir. The verses or dohas of Guru Kabir are still read by people with awe and admiration. Read on to explore the biography of Sant Kabir further.
As per the life history of Saint Kabir, he was born in 1398 AD. It is said that he was found floating on a lotus leaf in a tank in Benaras by a Muslim weaver. The weaver took the vulnerable child under his care and following the traditional manner, gave him the name of 'Kabir', meaning 'the great one'. Even at a young age, Kabir displayed enormous spiritual talent.
Meeting his Guru
Kabir always wanted to become a disciple of Ramanand. However, since he was a Muslim, it was next to impossible for him to get initiation from a Hindu. So, he took recourse to a trick. Ramanand daily went to the bathing ghat for his pre-dawn ritual ablutions. Kabir lay on the steps of the ghat in such a way that Ramanand stepped on him. Shocked at this incident, he chanted 'Rama! Rama!'. Kabir said that since he had received teachings from him, in the form of the words 'Rama! Rama!', he was Ramanand's disciple. Impressed with the intelligence of Kabir, Ramanand took him as his disciple.
Guru Kabir ke Dohe
The hallmark of Kabir's works consists of his two line couplets, known as the 'Kabir ke Dohe'. The Dohas reflect the deep philosophical thinking of the poet saint.
The Philosophy of Sant Kabir
Sant Kabir believed in the Vedantic concepts of atman. He always advocated the Impersonal Aspect of God (Nirguna) and therefore, was against idol worship. As per his view, all human beings are equal and the societal caste system that is so widely prevalent in our country is fallacious. He said that true guru is the one who can be attained through direct experience. The common ways of realizing God, like chanting, austerities, etc, are worthless...
Sir Jamshedji Nasarvanji Tata, famous industrialist and father of modern technology, passed away at Nauheim, Hesse-Nassau, France. He commenced cotton mills in Bombay and Nagpur and founded the Tata Iron and Steel Company, which is one of the largest integrated steel mills in the world...
Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata, He was an Indian industrialist, who founded the Tata Group, India's biggest conglomerate company. He was born to a Parsi family in Navsari, Gujarat, India. He founded what would later become the Tata Group of companies. Jamsetji Tata is regarded as the "father of Indian industry"
Late Jamsetji Tata was born to Nusserwanji and Jeevanbai Tata on 3 March 1839 in Navsari, a small town in South Gujarat. Nasarwanji Tata was the first businessman in a family of Parsi Zoroastrian priests. He started trading in Bombay. Jamsetji joined his father in Bombay at the age of 14 and enrolled at the Elphinstone College. He was married to Hirabai Daboo while he was still a student. He graduated from college in 1858 and joined his father's trading firm. It was a turbulent time to step into business as the Indian Rebellion of 1857 had just been suppressed by the British government.
Jamsetji worked in his father's company until the age of 29. In 1868, he started a trading company with a seed capital of Rs. 21,000. In 1869, he acquired a bankrupt oil mill in Chinchpokli, converted it into a cotton mill and renamed the mill Alexandra Mill. He sold the mill two years later for a healthy profit. Thereafter he set up a cotton mill in Nagpur in 1874. He christened it Empress Mill on 1 January 1877 when Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India. He devoted himself to bringing to fruition four of his key ideas: setting up an iron and steel company, a world-class learning institution, a one-of-a-kind hotel and a hydro-electric plant. Only one of the ideas became a reality during his lifetime. The Taj Mahal Hotel was inaugurated on the 3rd of December 1903. However, the foundations laid by him and hard work by his successors ensured that each of the ideas were eventually established and are respectable entities in their respective fields today: Tata Steel (formerly TISCO - Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited) is Asia's first and India's largest and became world's fifth largest steel company, after that it acquired anglo-Dutch Corus group producing 28 million tonnes of steel annually. The Indian Institute of Science The Taj Mahal Palace & Tower in Colaba district in Mumbai.; the only venture to bear fruition during his lifetime. The hotel was completed for a princely sum of Rs. 42,100,000 on 16 December 1903. Taking inflation into account it would cost Rs. 11,475,496,284 (£160,962,295) in 2010 prices. It was the only hotel in India to have electricity. It had American fans, German elevators, bathtubs from Turkey and British butlers and waiters worked there. The Tata Power Company Limited is India's largest private sector electricity generating company with an installed generation capacity of over 2300 MW.
Jamsetji Tata married Hirabai Daboo. Their sons, Dorabji Tata and Ratanji Tata, succeeded Jamsetji as the chairman of the Tata group. While on a business trip in Germany in 1904, Tata became seriously ill. He died in Nauheim on May 19, 1904, and was buried in a Parsi cemetery in Woking, England. The company started by Jamsetji Tata came to be known as the Tata Group and is today among the largest private sector firms in the world. Jamshedpur, also known as Tatanagar, a city in the Indian state of Jharkhand is named after him. The Tata Group has many facilities there, viz Tata Steel, Tata Motors (manufacturing heavy vehicles) also includes HVAL, HVTL, Telcon, Tata Power, Jusco, Tata Cumins, Tata Robins Frazer (TRF), Tata bearing, Tayo, Tata Tubes Division, Tinplate, Tata Agrico, IS&WP, Tata Pigments...
Kokan Krishi (Agriculture) University was established...
Maharashtra Govt. established an independent Agriculture University on 18th May, 1972 named “Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth” with its head quarters at Dapoli, District Ratnagiri, Maharashtra State, India. On 12th February. 2001, “Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth” has been renamed as “Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidypeeth.
Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidypeeth bagged the Best Institute Award given by Indian Council of Agriculture Research, New Delhi in 1997, Central Government of India’s “Indira Priyadarshini Vruksha Mitra" award & "Vanashri” award of State Government of Maharashtra in the year 1994. At Agricultural exhibition held at Pune, mango varieties Alphonso , Ratna, Totapuri Redsmall developed by Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidypeeth were selected for prizes. Two international awards have been received by the Rice Research Center, Karjat for the best research on rice and relevant technology.
Dr. B. S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli.
B.Sc. (Agri) Bachelor of Science (Agriculture)
B.Sc.(Hort) Bachelor of Science (Horticulture)
B.Sc. (For) Bachelor of Science (Forestry)
B.Sc. (AMM) Bachelor of Science ( Agril Marketing & Business Management)
B. Tech. (Food Sc.) Bachelor of Technology (Food Science)
M.Sc. (Agri) Master of Science (Agriculture)
Ph.D.Doctor of Philosophy
Faculties and Course Details - Agricultural Engineering
B.Tech. (Agril. Engg) Bachelor of Technology (Agricultural Engineering)
Faculties and Course Details - Fisheries
B.F.Sc.Bachelor of Fisheries Science
M.F. Sc. Master of Fishery Science
Ph.D. Doctor of Philosophy (Fisheries)
Diploma in Agricultural Education
Certificate course in Mali (Gardener) Training
Certificate course in Mali Training
The College of Fisheries, Ratnagiri.
B. F. Sc.
M. F. Sc. (Aquaculture)
M. F. Sc. (Fish Processing Technology)
M. F. Sc. (Fisheries Resource Management and Extension Education)
Ph. D. (Fisheries)
Admission is any course would be made on the basis of candidate's performance in the admission test; if and where, no test in conducted, admission would be made on the basis of aggregate total marks secured by the candidate in / at the qualifying examination and marks obtained by the candidate in eligibility subject
For latest information regarding Courses duration ,eligibility, and fee structure visit University/college website
Constituent and Affiliated Colleges
List of Non-grant Private College
Govindraoji Nikam Agriculture College, Mandaki-Palvan,
Mandaki-Palvan, Tal. Chiplun, Dist. Ratnagiri Ratnagiri Sindhudurg Zillha Krushi Phlotpadan Sevasangh, Nivali. Tal. Chiplun. Dist. Ratnagiri.
College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology. Mandki-Palvan.
College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Mandki-Palvan. Tal-Chiplun, Dist-Ratnagiri. Pin - 415641
College of Agriculture, Saralgaon
Saralgaon, Tal. Murbad, Dist. Thane Yashodip Samajik Vikas Sanstha, Karad, Tal. Karad, Dist. Satara.
College of Horticulture, Sawarde
Sawarde, Tal. Chiplun, Dtst. Ratnagiri Sahyandri Shikshan Sanstha, Sawarde, Tal. Chiplun, Dist. Ratnagiri.
Chatrapati Shivaji Agriculture College, Kirlos,
Oros, Tal. Kudal, Dist. Sindhudurg Sindhudurg Zilla Krishi Prathishthan, Kirlos, Tal. Malvan, Dist. Sindhudurg.
Shri. S. S. Patil College of Agril. Marketing and Business Management. Panvel.
At. Rasayani, Tal. Panvel, Dist. Raigad. Karnala Charitable Trust, Panvel, Dist. Raigad.
College of Agril. Engineering and Technology, Nivali.
Nivali, Tal. Chiplun, Dist. Ratnagiri. Ratnagiri Sindhudurg Zillha Krushi Phlotpadan Sevasangh, Nivali Tal. Chiplun. Dist. Ratnagiri.
College of Agril. Technology, Kharvate-Dahivali. (Food Sc.)
Sawarde, Tal. Chiplun, Dtst. Ratnagiri Sahyandri Shikshan Sanstha, Sawarde, Tal. Chiplun. Dist. Ratnagiri.
Agricultural School, Roha, Dist. Raigad
Agricultural School, Lanja, Dist. Ratnagiri
Agricultural School, Kosbad Hill, Dist. Thane
Mahatma Gandhi Janta Vidyalaya, Kosbad Hill, Thane
Recognized Agricultural Schools
Agricultural School, Sukivali, Tal. Khed, Dist. Ratnagiri
Agricultural School, Khavati, Tal. Khed, Dist. Ratnagiri
Agricultural School, Kharavate – Dahivali, Tal. Chiplun, Dist. Ratnagiri
Agricultural School, Asond, Tal. Dapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri
Agricultural School, Kolkhe, A-2, Pornima Co-op. Hsg. Society, Near Palaspe Phata, Panvel, Dist. Raigad
Agricultural School, Punir, Punirphata, Post – Valavati, Tal. Shrivardhan, Dist. Raigad
Agricultural School, Vawe, Post – Kalamb, Tal. Karjat, Dist. Raigad
Agricultural School, Nandgaon Khurd, Post – Taloshi, Tal. Mahad, Dist. Raigad
Agricultural School, Digas, Tal. Kudal, Dist. Sindhudurg
Agricultural School, Padlos, Tal. Sawantwadi, Dist. Sindhudurg
Agricultural School, Padlos, Tal. Sawantwadi, Dist. Sindhudurg
Agricultural School, Madkhol, Tal. Sawantwadi, Dist. Sindhudurg
Agricultural School, Saralgaon, Tal. Murbad, Dist. Thane
Agricultural School, Sonivali, Post – Eranjad, Tal. Ambarnath, Dist. Thane
Agricultural School, Lenad Bk., Tal. Shahapur, Dist. Thane
Agricultural School, Khanivali (Padgha), Post – Vashind, Tal. Shahapur, Dist. Thane
Agricultural School, Vadacha Pat, Tal. Malvan, Dist. Sindhudurg
Mali Training Center, College of Agriculture, Dapoli, Dist. Ratnaigiri
Mali Training Center, Bombay Veterinary College, Near Mahananda Dairy, Goregaon, Mumbai – 400 065
Dr Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth
(Professional -Agricultural University)
Dist Ratnagiri 415 712
Tel : 02358-282064, 282015, 282065, 282066
Fax : 02358-282074/284308
Website : http://www.dbskkv.org
VC: Dr V B Mehta
Reg: Shri V R Kale
Hindi daily 'Bharat Mitra' started from Calcutta...
Between 1850 and 1857 a number of Hindi Newspaper were published. Among them were Benaras Akbar, Sudhakar Tatwa Bodhini, Patrika and Sathya. A literary magazine which set the standard for Hindi Journals in the early year of century was Saraswathi, a monthly edited by Mahavir Prasad Dwibedy. It standardised the style and pattern of Hindi journalism and developed literary criticism and book reviews. It became the torchbearer for later day Hindi journalists who cultivated its prose style. Newspapers like Bharat Mitra (1878), Sarsudhanidhi (1879), Uchit Wakta (1880) and Hindi Bangavasi (1890) were published from Calcutta during the last three decades of 19th century. Bharat Mitra, published from Calcutta became the leading Hindi newspaper of the time under the dynamic stewardship of its early editors, Balmukund Gupta and Ambika Prasad Bajpai.
The beginning of the new century saw the birth of many Hindi dailies in Bombay, Calcutta and Patna. The more prominent among them were Sri Venkateswar Samachar and Calcutta Samachar. Viswamitra, which was started after the Calcutta Samachar became defunct, offered serious competition to Bharat Mitra from 1918.
Hindi journalism made rapid progress during the first world war period and many outstanding journalists came to the fore including Ganga Prasad Gupta, Nanda Kumar Deo Dharma, M. P. Dwivedi, Hari Krishna Jouhar, Chhote Ram Shukla, Indra Vidyavachaspati, Shri Ram Pandey, Lakshminarayan Garde and Narmada Prasad Misra. One of the foremost Hindi journalists who earned a name for his patriotism was Ganesh Shanker Vidyarthi. In 1913, he brought out weekly Pratap from Kanpur. He made the supreme sacrifice in 1931 in the cause of Hindu-Muslim unity. Krishna Dutt Paliwal brought out Sainik from Agra which became a staunch propagator of nationalism in Western U. P. The noted Congress leader, Swami Shradhanand, started the publication of Hindi journal Vir Arjun and Urdu journal Tej. After the assassination of Swami Shradhanand, Vidyavachaspathi and Lala Deshbandhu Gupta, both prominent Congress leaders continued the publication of these journals.
At the turn of the century almost all Calcutta based Hindi newspapers went vocal against the suppressive and divisive policies of the Raj. This marked the beginning – in 1907- of two outstanding magazines: Nrisinha and Devnagar. Nrisinha edited by Ambika Prasad Vajpayee, a stauch supporter of Lokmanya Tilak was a political magazine and it joined the protest against British rule. Devnagar on the other hand tried to work on a uniform script.1
In 1920, the Aj was started in Banaras. It played a notable part in the freedom struggle. Its first editor was Sri Prakasa, a great freedom fighter who occupied positions of power and prestige in free India. He was assisted by Babu Rao Vishnu Parakar whose contribution to the development of Hindi Journalism was considerable. Espousing the national cause and waging a never-ending battle with the alien rulers, the Aj was a bulwark of the Indian National Congress and its main forum to spread the message of freedom to the Hindi-speaking masses of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Nepal. It set the tone and style for Hindi Journalism and was acclaimed for its impartial objective reporting and illuminating and fearless editorials. A balanced blending of national and international news was one of its strong features.
In Patna the Desh, a weekly, was an influential journal and the mouthpiece of the Congress. It was founded by Babu Rajendra Prasad and his friends in 1920. But it was not a profitable venture and had to close down.
In 1924 there were 102 Hindi newspapers; four of them were dailies (AJ, Banaras, Swatantra, Calcutta, Arjun, Delhi and Calcutta Samachar, Calcutta) According to one historian, until 1926, Hindi dailies were not financially successful. "Their get up and printing was poor, the reading material not quite up to the mark and the editorials unwieldy and lengthy. The weeklies were better edited and got up." Among the well-known better produced weeklies were Bhavishya (Kanpur), Karmaveer (Khandwa) and Sainik (Agra). Among the important Hindi dailies which flourished in 1930 were: Visvamitra and Bharat Mitra (Calcutta), Savadho Bharat (Bombay). Lokkat (Jabalpur), Variman (Kanpur), Milap (Lahore) besides AJ (Banaras), Arjun(Delhi) and Lokmanya (Calcutta).
As freedom struggle gained momentum, there was a steady rise of Hindi journalism both in terms of quality and quantity. More number of Hindi publications took birth in almost all North Indian states and also in Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Andhra Pradesh, especially Hyderabad. Hindi publications like other language publications by and large supported Nationalist movement and faced the suppression of the British rulers. One of the important Hindi dailies to be published from the capital was Hindustan, sister newspaper of the Hindustan Times, started in 1936. Wide news coverage and a variety of special features marked the Hindustan. Started in 1940, Aryavari of Patna was a sister publication of the Indian Nation and enjoyed considerable influence.
Hindi journalism grew more rapidly after independence. After independence Hindi was adopted as the official language of India. 2 This also helped to spread Hindi language nationwide. The Nav Bharat Times of the Times of India group started in Delhi in 1950. The Amrita Patrika of Allahabad was another notable Hindi daily which was well-known for its trenchant editorials. By 1964 Hindi had the largest number of newspapers among language papers. The trend of publishing multiple editions from different states helped Hindi newspapers to increase their reach and circulation...